AIP Manifesto references - Food for the Brain

AIP Manifesto references

1. Matthews F, Brayne C, ‘The incidence of dementia in England and Wales: findings from the five identical sites of the MRC CFA Study.’ PLoS Med. 2005 Aug;2(8):e193

2. Petersen R et al, ‘Mild cognitive impairment: a concept in evolution.’ J Intern Med. 2014 Mar;275(3):214-28

3. https://www.alzint.org/about/dementia-facts-figures/dementia-statistics/

4. https://www.alzheimers.org.uk/about-us/policy-and-influencing/dementia-scale-impact-numbers

5. See ref 6

6. World Alzheimer Report. (2018). Available online at: https://www.alzint.org/resource/world-alzheimer-report-2018

7. Lewis F et al, ‘The Trajectory of Dementia in the UK – Making a Difference, June 2014, Office of Health Economics for Alzheimer’s Research UK

8. See ref 6

9. Bird et al., 2021. The psychological determinants of making lifestyle and dietary behaviours after using an online cognitive health tool and its associated recommendations for protective cognitive health behaviours. Eur Journ Psych, 35 (3), 145-156. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpsy.2021.02.001

10. Ackley SF, Zimmerman SC, Brenowitz WD, Tchetgen Tchetgen EJ, Gold AL, Manly JJ, et al. Effect of reductions in amyloid levels on cognitive change in randomized trials: instrumental variable meta-analysis. BMJ. 2021; 372: n156.

11. Editorial. Dementia: a false promise. Lancet 2014;384(9948):1072

12. Bekris L et al, ‘Genetics of Alzheimer disease’ Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology 2010, 23(4) 213-227

13. Solomon A, Turunen H, Ngandu T, Peltonen M, Levalahti E, Helisalmi S, et al. Effect of the Apolipoprotein E Genotype on Cognitive Change During a Multidomain Lifestyle Intervention: A Subgroup Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Neurol. 2018; 75: 462-70.

14. Yu JT, Xu W, Tan CC, Andrieu S, Suckling J, Evangelou E, Pan A, Zhang C, Jia J, Feng L, Kua EH, Wang YJ, Wang HF, Tan MS, Li JQ, Hou XH, Wan Y, Tan L, Mok V, Tan L, Dong Q, Touchon J, Gauthier S, Aisen PS, Vellas B. Evidence-based prevention of Alzheimer’s disease: systematic review and meta-analysis of 243 observational prospective studies and 153 randomised controlled trials. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2020 Nov;91(11):1201-1209. doi: 10.1136/jnnp-2019-321913. Epub 2020 Jul 20. PMID: 32690803; PMCID: PMC7569385.

15. Beydoun M et al, ‘Epidemiologic studies of modifiable factors associated with cognition and dementia: systematic review and meta-analysis’ BMC Public Health 2014, 14:643

16. Smith AD, Yaffe K. Dementia (including Alzheimer’s disease) can be prevented: statement supported by international experts. J Alzheimers Dis. 2014;38(4):699-703. doi: 10.3233/JAD-132372. PMID: 24326609.

17.Luchsinger J et al, Neurology 2004; Abbatecola A et al, J Am Geriatr Soc, 2004; Xu W et al, Neurology, 63:1181–6 (2004); Hassing L et al, J Int Neuropsychol Soc, 2004; Yaffe K et al, J Nutr Health Aging, 2006; Roberts R et al, Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord, 2010

18. Arvanitakis Z et al, Arch Neurol, 2004; Yaffe K et al, Neurology, 2004

19. Tiehuis A et al, ‘Diabetes Increases Atrophy and Vascular Lesions on Brain MRI in Patients With Symptomatic Arterial Disease’  Stroke. 2008;39:1600-1603; see also Samaras K, et al. ‘The impact of glucose disorders on cognition and brain volumes in the elderly: the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study’Age (Dordr). 2014 Apr;36(2):977-93

20. Mortby M et al, ‘High “normal” blood glucose is associated with decreased brain volume and cognitive performance in the 60s: the PATH through life study.’ PLoS One. 2013 Sep 4;8(9):e73697; see also Crane P et al, ‘Glucose levels and risk of dementia.’ N Engl J Med. 2013 Aug 8;369(6):540-8

21. P.K. Crane et al., ‘Glucose levels and risk of dementia’, New England Journal of Medicine (2013), vol 369(6):540–548.

22. J.A. Luchsinger et al., ‘Hyperinsulinemia and risk of Alzheimer disease’, Neurology (2004), vol 63(7):1187–1192.

23. A.M. Abbatecola et al., ‘Insulin resistance and executive dysfunction in older persons’, Journal of the American Geriatrics Society (2004), vol 52(10):1713–1718

24. X. Ye et al., ‘Habitual sugar intake and cognitive function among middle-aged and older Puerto Ricans without diabetes’, British Journal of Nutrition (2011), vol. 106(9):1423–1432.

25.  S. Seetharaman et al., ‘Blood glucose, diet-based glycemic load and cognitive aging amongst dementia-free older adults’, Journals of Gerentology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences (2015), vol 70(4):471–479.

26.  S.E. Power et al., ‘Dietary glycaemic load associated with cognitive performance in elderly subjects’, European Journal of Nutrition (2015), vol 54(4):557–568.

27.  M.K. Taylor et al., ‘A high-glycemic diet is associated with cerebral amyloid burden in cognitively normal older adults’, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2017), vol 106(6):1463–1470.

28. Taylor MK, Sullivan DK, Swerdlow RH, Vidoni ED, Morris JK, Mahnken JD, Burns JM. A high-glycemic diet is associated with cerebral amyloid burden in cognitively normal older adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Dec;106(6):1463-1470. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.117.162263. Epub 2017 Oct 25. PMID: 29070566; PMCID: PMC5698843.

29. Gentreau M, Raymond M, Chuy V, Samieri C, Féart C, Berticat C, Artero S. High Glycemic Load Is Associated with Cognitive Decline in Apolipoprotein E ε4 Allele Carriers. Nutrients. 2020 Nov 25;12(12):3619. doi: 10.3390/nu12123619. PMID: 33255701; PMCID: PMC7761247.

30. M.E. Mortby et al., ‘High “normal” blood glucose is associated with decreased brain volume and cognitive performance in the 60s: the PATH through Life Study’, PLoS One (2013), vol 8:e73697.

31.The emerging role of dietary fructose in obesity and cognitive decline. Lakhan, S. E. & A. Kirchgessner. Nutr J (2013) 12: 114.  The emerging role of dietary fructose in obesity and cognitive decline. Nutr J. 2013 Aug 8;12:114. doi: 10.1186/1475-2891-12-114. Review.

32. Yau PL, Castro MG, Tagani A, Tsui WH, Convit A. Obesity and metabolic syndrome and functional and structural brain impairments in adolescence. Pediatrics. 2012 Oct;130(4):e856-64. doi: 10.1542/peds.2012-0324. Epub 2012 Sep 3. PMID: 22945407; PMCID: PMC3457620.

33. Mangone A, Yates KF, Sweat V, Joseph A, Convit A. Cognitive functions among predominantly minority urban adolescents with metabolic syndrome. Appl Neuropsychol Child. 2018 Apr-Jun;7(2):157-163. doi: 10.1080/21622965.2017.1284662. Epub 2017 Feb 22. PMID: 28631969.

34.  Loef M, WaLac H ‘Fruit, vegetables and prevention of cognitive decline or dementia: a systematic review of cohort studies’, The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging,Volume 16, Number 7, 2012 626-630

35.   Martinez-Lapiscina E et al, ‘Mediterranean diet improves cognition: the PREDIMED-NAVARRA randomised trial’, Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry 2013

36. Eskelinen M et al, ‘Midlife Healthy-Diet Index and Late-Life Dementia and Alzheimer’s Disease’, Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord Extra 2011;1:103–112

37. Dyall, S. C. (2015, 2015-April-21). Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids and the brain: A review of the independent and shared effects of EPA, DPA and DHA [Review]. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, 7(52). https://doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2015.00052

38. Dyall, S. C., Balas, L., Bazan, N. G., Brenna, J. T., Chiang, N., da Costa Souza, F., Dalli, J., Durand, T., Galano, J. M., Lein, P. J., Serhan, C. N., & Taha, A. Y. (2022, Apr). Polyunsaturated fatty acids and fatty acid-derived lipid mediators: Recent advances in the understanding of their biosynthesis, structures, and functions. Prog Lipid Res, 86, 101165. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plipres.2022.101165

39. Dyall SC, Michael-Titus AT. Neurological benefits of omega-3 fatty acids. Neuromolecular Med. 2008;10(4):219-35. doi: 10.1007/s12017-008-8036-z. Epub 2008 Jun 10. PMID: 18543124.

40. Stark, K. D., Van Elswyk, M. E., Higgins, M. R., Weatherford, C. A., & Salem, N., Jr. (2016, Jul). Global survey of the omega-3 fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid in the blood stream of healthy adults. Prog Lipid Res, 63, 132-152. https://doi.org/S0163-7827(15)30033-3 [pii]10.1016/j.plipres.2016.05.001 Alzheimers Dement. 2017 Nov;13(11):1207-1216. doi: 10.1016/j.jalz.2017.03.003. Epub 2017 May 16

41.  Theodore LE, Kellow NJ, McNeil EA, Close EO, Coad EG, Cardoso BR. Nut Consumption for Cognitive Performance: A Systematic Review. Adv Nutr. 2021 Jun 1;12(3):777-792. doi: 10.1093/advances/nmaa153. PMID: 33330927; PMCID: PMC8166568.

42. Wood et al., 2022, Dietary and supplemental long‑chain omega‑3 fatty acids as moderators of cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease.European Journal of Nutrition (2022) 61:589–604.https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-021-02655-4.

43. Veronica Witte, Lucia Kerti, Henrike M. Hermannstädter, Jochen B. Fiebach, Stephan J. Schreiber, Jan Philipp Schuchardt, Andreas Hahn, Agnes Flöel, Long-Chain Omega-3 Fatty Acids Improve Brain Function and Structure in Older Adults, Cerebral Cortex, Volume 24, Issue 11, November 2014, Pages 3059–3068, https://doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bht163

44. Yurko-Mauro K, McCarthy D, Rom D, et al; Beneficial effects of docosahexaenoic acid on cognition in age-related cognitive decline. Alzheimers Dement. 2010; 6, 456-64

45. Quinn JF, Raman R, Thomas RG, et al; Docosahexaenoic acid supplementation and cognitive decline in Alzheimer disease: a randomized trial. JAMA, 2010; Nov 3;304(17):1903-11.

46. Cunnane, Stephen & Schneider, Julie & Tangney, Christine & Tremblay-Mercier, Jennifer & Fortier, Mélanie & Bennett, David & Morris, Martha. (2012). Plasma and Brain Fatty Acid Profiles in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer’s Disease. Journal of Alzheimer’s disease : JAD. 29. 691-7. 10.3233/JAD-2012-110629.

47. Richter Y, Herzog Y, Lifshitz Y, Hayun R, Zchut S. The effect of soybean-derived phosphatidylserine on cognitive performance in elderly with subjective memory complaints: a pilot study. Clin Interv Aging. 2013;8:557-63. doi: 10.2147/CIA.S40348. Epub 2013 May 21. PMID: 23723695; PMCID: PMC3665496.

48. Schaefer EJ, Bongard V, Beiser AS, Lamon-Fava S, Robins SJ, Au R, Tucker KL, Kyle DJ, Wilson PW, Wolf PA. Plasma phosphatidylcholine docosahexaenoic acid content and risk of dementia and Alzheimer disease: the Framingham Heart Study. Arch Neurol. 2006 Nov;63(11):1545-50. doi: 10.1001/archneur.63.11.1545. PMID: 17101822.

49. Fairbairn, P., Dyall, S. C., & Tsofliou, F. (2022, Apr 27). The Effects of Multi-Nutrient Formulas containing a Combination of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and B vitamins on Cognition in the older adult: A Systematic

50. Nakazaki E, Mah E, Sanoshy K, Citrolo D, Watanabe F. Citicoline and Memory Function in Healthy Older Adults: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial. J Nutr. 2021 Aug 7;151(8):2153-2160. doi:

51. Sommer I, Griebler U, Kien C, Auer S, Klerings I, Hammer R, Holzer P, Gartlehner G. Vitamin D deficiency as a risk factor for dementia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Geriatr. 2017 Jan 13;17(1):16. doi: 10.1186/s12877-016-0405-0. PMID: 28086755; PMCID: PMC5237198;

52. Jayedi A, Rashidy-Pour A, Shab-Bidar S. Vitamin D status and risk of dementia and Alzheimer’s disease: A meta-analysis of dose-response †. Nutr Neurosci. 2019 Nov;22(11):750-759. doi: 10.1080/1028415X.2018.1436639. Epub 2018 Feb 15. PMID: 29447107;

53. Chai B, Gao F, Wu R, Dong T, Gu C, Lin Q, Zhang Y. Vitamin D deficiency as a risk factor for dementia and Alzheimer’s disease: an updated meta-analysis. BMC Neurol. 2019 Nov 13;19(1):284. doi: 10.1186/s12883-019-1500-6. PMID: 31722673; PMCID: PMC6854782.

54. Jia J, Hu J, Huo X, Miao R, Zhang Y, Ma F. Effects of vitamin D supplementation on cognitive function and blood Aβ-related biomarkers in older adults with Alzheimer’s disease: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2019 Dec;90(12):1347-1352. doi: 10.1136/jnnp-2018-320199. Epub 2019 Jul 11. PMID: 31296588.

55. Feart C, Helmer C, Merle B, Herrmann FR, Annweiler C, Dartigues JF, Delcourt C, Samieri C. Associations of lower vitamin D concentrations with cognitive decline and long-term risk of dementia and Alzheimer’s disease in older adults. Alzheimers Dement. 2017 Nov;13(11):1207-1216. doi: 10.1016/j.jalz.2017.03.003. Epub 2017 May 16. PMID: 28522216.

DOMAIN 3 – Keep your HCY low with B vitamins

56. Van Dam F, Van Gool WA. Hyperhomocysteinemia and Alzheimer’s disease: A systematic review. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2009; 48: 425-30.

57. Zhang X, Bao G, Liu D, Yang Y, Li X, Cai G, et al. The association between folate and Alzheimer’s Disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Front Neurosci. 2021; 15: 661198.

58. Smith AD, Refsum H. Homocysteine, B vitamins, and cognitive impairment. Annu Rev Nutr. 2016; 36: 211-39

59. Smith AD, Smith SM, de Jager CA, Whitbread P, Johnston C, Agacinski G, et al. Homocysteine-lowering by B vitamins slows the rate of accelerated brain atrophy in mild cognitive impairment. A randomized controlled trial. PLoS ONE. 2010; 5: e12244.

60. Smith AD, Refsum H, Bottiglieri T, Fenech M, Hooshmand B, McCaddon A, et al. Homocysteine and dementia: An international consensus statement. J Alzheimers Dis. 2018; 62: 561-70

61. Beydoun MA, Beydoun HA, Gamaldo AA, Teel A, Zonderman AB, Wang Y. Epidemiologic studies of modifiable factors associated with cognition and dementia: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Public Health. 2014; 14: 643.

62. Yu JT, Xu W, Tan CC, Andrieu S, Suckling J, Evangelou E, et al. Evidence-based prevention of Alzheimer’s disease: systematic review and meta-analysis of 243 observational prospective studies and 153 randomised controlled trials. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2020; 91: 1201-9

63. Smith AD, Refsum H. Homocysteine – from disease biomarker to disease prevention. J Intern Med. 2021.

64. Durga J, van Boxtel MP, Schouten EG, Kok FJ, Jolles J, Katan MB, et al. Effect of 3-year folic acid supplementation on cognitive function in older adults in the FACIT trial: a randomised, double blind, controlled trial. Lancet. 2007; 369: 208-16.

65. Douaud G, Refsum H, de Jager CA, Jacoby R, Nichols TE, Smith SM, et al. Preventing Alzheimer’s disease-related gray matter atrophy by B-vitamin treatment. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013; 110: 9523-8.

66.  de Jager CA, Oulhaj A, Jacoby R, Refsum H, Smith AD. Cognitive and clinical outcomes of homocysteine-lowering B-vitamin treatment in mild cognitive impairment: a randomized controlled trial. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2012; 27: 592-600.

67. Aisen PS, Schneider LS, Sano M, Diaz-Arrastia R, van Dyck CH, Weiner MF, et al. High-dose B vitamin supplementation and cognitive decline in Alzheimer disease: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2008; 300: 1774-83.

68. Jernerén F, Elshorbagy AK, Oulhaj A, Smith SM, Refsum H, Smith AD. Brain atrophy in cognitively impaired elderly: the importance of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids and B

69. Oulhaj A, Jernerén F, Refsum H, Smith AD, de Jager CA. Omega-3 fatty acid status enhances the prevention of cognitive decline by B vitamins in Mild Cognitive Impairment J Alzheimer’s Dis. 2016; 50: 547-57.

70. Ma F, Zhou X, Li Q, Zhao J, Song A, An P, et al. Effects of folic acid and vitamin B12 , alone and in combination on cognitive function and inflammatory factors in the elderly with Mild Cognitive Impairment: a single-blind experimental design. Curr Alzheimer Res. 2019; 16: 622-32.

71. Li M, Li W, Gao Y, Chen Y, Bai D, Weng J, et al. Effect of folic acid combined with docosahexaenoic acid intervention on mild cognitive impairment in elderly: a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Eur J Nutr. 2020.

72. Sachdev PS. Alzheimer disease: Homocysteine and Alzheimer disease: an intervention study. Nat Rev Neurol. 2011; 7: 9-10.

DOMAIN 4 – Eat and Drink Anti-Ageing Antioxidants and Polyphenols

73.  Zhong G, Wang Y, Zhang Y, Guo JJ, Zhao Y (2015) Smoking Is Associated with an Increased Risk of Dementia: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies with Investigation of Potential Effect Modifiers. PLoS ONE 10(3): e0118333. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0118333

74.  Peters R, Ee N, Peters J, Booth A, Mudway I, Anstey KJ. Air Pollution and Dementia: A Systematic Review. J Alzheimers Dis. 2019;70(s1):S145-S163. doi: 10.3233/JAD-180631. PMID: 30775976; PMCID: PMC6700631.

75. Nurk E et al., ‘Cognitive performance among the elderly in relation to the intake of plant foods. The Hordaland Health Study’ British Journal of Nutrition (2010), 104, 1190–1201

76. Loef M, WaLac H ‘Fruit, vegetables and prevention of cognitive decline or dementia: a systematic review of cohort studies’, The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging,Volume 16, Number 7, 2012 626-630

77.  Devore E et al, ‘Dietary intakes of berries and flavonoids in relation to cognitive decline’, Annals of neurology 2012; 72: 135-43

78. Agarwal P, Holland TM, Wang Y, Bennett DA, Morris MC. Association of Strawberries and Anthocyanidin Intake with Alzheimer’s Dementia Risk. Nutrients. 2019 Dec 14;11(12):3060. doi: 10.3390/nu11123060. PMID: 31847371; PMCID: PMC6950087

79. Agarwal P, Holland TM, Wang Y, Bennett DA, Morris MC. Association of Strawberries and Anthocyanidin Intake with Alzheimer’s Dementia Risk. Nutrients. 2019 Dec 14;11(12):3060. doi: 10.3390/nu11123060. PMID: 31847371; PMCID: PMC6950087

80. Nurk E et al, ‘Intake of flavonoid rich wine, tea, and chocolate by elderly men and women is associated with better cognitive test performance’, J Nutr 139, 120–127

81.Feng L, Chong MS, Lim WS, Lee TS, Kua EH, Ng TP. Tea for Alzheimer Prevention. J Prev Alzheimers Dis. 2015;2(2):136-141. doi: 10.14283/jpad.2015.57. PMID: 29231231.

82. Román GC, Jackson RE, Reis J, Román AN, Toledo JB, Toledo E. Extra-virgin olive oil for potential prevention of Alzheimer disease. Rev Neurol (Paris). 2019 Dec;175(10):705-723. doi: 10.1016/j.neurol.2019.07.017. Epub 2019 Sep 11. PMID: 31521394.; Salis C, Papageorgiou L, Papakonstantinou E, Hagidimitriou M, Vlachakis D. Olive Oil Polyphenols in Neurodegenerative Pathologies. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2020;1195:77-91. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-32633-3_12. PMID: 32468462.

83. 76. Loef M, WaLac H, ‘Fruit, vegetables and prevention of cognitive decline or dementia: a systematic review of cohort studies’ The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging,Volume 16, Number 7, 2012 626-630

84.  Lefèvre-Arbogast S, Gaudout D, Bensalem J, Letenneur L, Dartigues JF, Hejblum BP, Féart C, Delcourt C, Samieri C. Pattern of polyphenol intake and the long-term risk of dementia in older persons. Neurology. 2018 May 29;90(22):e1979-e1988. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000005607. Epub 2018 Apr 27. PMID: 29703769.

85.  Valls-Pedret C, Sala-Vila A, Serra-Mir M, Corella D, de la Torre R, Martínez-González MÁ, Martínez-Lapiscina EH, Fitó M, Pérez-Heras A, Salas-Salvadó J, Estruch R, Ros E. Mediterranean Diet and Age-Related Cognitive Decline: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Intern Med. 2015 Jul;175(7):1094-1103. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2015.1668. Erratum in: JAMA Intern Med. 2018 Dec 1;178(12):1731-1732. PMID: 25961184.

86. Travica N, Ried K, Sali A, Scholey A, Hudson I, Pipingas A. Vitamin C Status and Cognitive Function: A Systematic Review. Nutrients. 2017 Aug 30;9(9):960. doi: 10.3390/nu9090960. PMID: 28867798; PMCID: PMC5622720.

87. Yu JT, Xu W, Tan CC, Andrieu S, Suckling J, Evangelou E, Pan A, Zhang C, Jia J, Feng L, Kua EH, Wang YJ, Wang HF, Tan MS, Li JQ, Hou XH, Wan Y, Tan L, Mok V, Tan L, Dong Q, Touchon J, Gauthier S, Aisen PS, Vellas B. Evidence-based prevention of Alzheimer’s disease: systematic review and meta-analysis of 243 observational prospective studies and 153 randomised controlled trials. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2020 Nov;91(11):1201-1209. doi: 10.1136/jnnp-2019-321913. Epub 2020 Jul 20. PMID: 32690803; PMCID: PMC7569385

88. Basambombo LL, Carmichael PH, Côté S, Laurin D. Use of Vitamin E and C Supplements for the Prevention of Cognitive Decline. Ann Pharmacother. 2017 Feb;51(2):118-124. doi: 10.1177/1060028016673072. Epub 2016 Oct 5. PMID: 27708183.

89.  Zandi P et al, ‘Reduced risk of Alzheimer’s disease in users of antioxidant vitamin supplements: the Cache County Study’, Arch Neurol 2004; 61: 82-8

90. Zandi P et al, ‘Reduced risk of Alzheimer’s disease in users of antioxidant vitamin supplements: the Cache County Study’, Arch Neurol 2004; 61: 82-8

91. Dysken MW, Sano M, Asthana S, Vertrees JE, Pallaki M, Llorente M, et al. Effect of vitamin e and memantine on functional decline in alzheimer disease. JAMA. (2014) 311:33–44. doi: 10.1001/jama.2013.282834

92. Agarwal P, Holland TM, Wang Y, Bennett DA, Morris MC. Association of Strawberries and Anthocyanidin Intake with Alzheimer’s Dementia Risk. Nutrients. 2019 Dec 14;11(12):3060. doi: 10.3390/nu11123060. PMID: 31847371; PMCID: PMC6950087.

92. Yang X, Zhang Y, Xu H, Luo X, Yu J, Liu J, Chang RC. Neuroprotection of Coenzyme Q10 in Neurodegenerative Diseases. Curr Top Med Chem. 2016;16(8):858-66. doi: 10.2174/1568026615666150827095252. PMID: 26311425.

93. Gomes BAQ, Silva JPB, Romeiro CFR, Dos Santos SM, Rodrigues CA, Gonçalves PR, Sakai JT, Mendes PFS, Varela ELP, Monteiro MC. Neuroprotective Mechanisms of Resveratrol in Alzheimer’s Disease: Role of SIRT1. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2018 Oct 30;2018:8152373. doi: 10.1155/2018/8152373. PMID: 30510627; PMCID: PMC6232815.

94. Rodriguez-Mateos A, Vauzour D, Krueger CG, Shanmuganayagam D, Reed J, Calani L, Mena P, Del Rio D, Crozier A. Bioavailability, bioactivity and impact on health of dietary flavonoids and related compounds: an update. Arch Toxicol. 2014 Oct;88(10):1803-53. doi: 10.1007/s00204-014-1330-7. Epub 2014 Sep 3. PMID: 25182418.

DOMAIN 5 – A Healthy Gut is a Healthy Brain

92. Guo H, Chang S, Pi X, Hua F, Jiang H, Liu C, Du M. The Effect of Periodontitis on Dementia and Cognitive Impairment: A Meta-Analysis. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021 Jun 25;18(13):6823. doi: 10.3390/ijerph18136823. PMID: 34202071; PMCID: PMC8297088.

93. Scherer RX, Scherer WJ. U.S. state correlations between oral health metrics and Alzheimer’s disease mortality, prevalence and subjective cognitive decline prevalence. Sci Rep. 2020 Dec 1;10(1):20962. doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-77937-8. PMID: 33262437; PMCID: PMC7708488.

94. Vogiatzoglou A, Refsum H, Johnston C, Smith SM, Bradley KM, de Jager C, Budge MM, Smith AD. Vitamin B12 status and rate of brain volume loss in community-dwelling elderly. Neurology. 2008 Sep 9;71(11):826-32. doi: 10.1212/01.wnl.0000325581.26991.f2. PMID: 18779510.


95. Momtaz YA, Hamid TA, Ibrahim R. Gastritis May Boost Odds of Dementia. American Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease & Other Dementias®. 2014;29(5):452-456. doi:10.1177/1533317513518654

96. Chen CH, Lin CL, Kao CH. Irritable Bowel Syndrome Is Associated with an Increased Risk of Dementia: A Nationwide Population-Based Study. PLoS One. 2016 Jan 5;11(1):e0144589. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0144589. PMID: 26731277; PMCID: PMC4701489.

97. Franceschi F, Ojetti V, Candelli M, Covino M, Cardone S, Potenza A, Simeoni B, Gabrielli M, Sabia L, Gasbarrini G, Lopetuso L, Scaldaferri F, Rossini PM, Gasbarrini A. Microbes and Alzheimer’ disease: lessons from H. pylori and GUT microbiota. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2019 Jan;23(1):426-430. doi: 10.26355/eurrev_201901_16791. PMID: 30657587.

98. Maes ML, Fixen DR, Linnebur SA. Adverse effects of proton-pump inhibitor use in older adults: a review of the evidence. Ther Adv Drug Saf. 2017 Sep;8(9):273-297. doi: 10.1177/2042098617715381. Epub 2017 Jun 29. PMID: 28861211; PMCID: PMC5557164.

100. Fröhlich EE, Farzi A, Mayerhofer R, Reichmann F, Jačan A, Wagner B, Zinser E, Bordag N, Magnes C, Fröhlich E, Kashofer K, Gorkiewicz G, Holzer P. Cognitive impairment by antibiotic-induced gut dysbiosis: Analysis of gut microbiota-brain communication. Brain Behav Immun. 2016 Aug;56:140-55. doi: 10.1016/j.bbi.2016.02.020. Epub 2016 Feb 23. PMID: 26923630; PMCID: PMC5014122.

101. Aranburu, E.; Matias, S.; Simón, E.; Larretxi, I.; Martínez, O.; Bustamante, M.Á.; Fernández-Gil, M.d.P.; Miranda, J. Gluten and FODMAPs Relationship with Mental Disorders: Systematic Review. Nutrients 2021, 13, 1894. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13061894

102. Watson H, Mitra S, Croden FC, Taylor M, Wood HM, Perry SL, Spencer JA, Quirke P, Toogood GJ, Lawton CL, Dye L, Loadman PM, Hull MA. A randomised trial of the effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplements on the human intestinal microbiota. Gut. 2018 Nov;67(11):1974-1983. doi: 10.1136/gutjnl-2017-314968. Epub 2017 Sep 26. PMID: 28951525.

103. Sochocka M, Donskow-Łysoniewska K, Diniz BS, Kurpas D, Brzozowska E, Leszek J. The Gut Microbiome Alterations and Inflammation-Driven Pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s Disease-a Critical Review. Mol Neurobiol. 2019 Mar;56(3):1841-1851. doi: 10.1007/s12035-018-1188-4. Epub 2018 Jun 23. PMID: 29936690; PMCID: PMC6394610.

104.  Cryan JF, O’Riordan KJ, Cowan CSM, Sandhu KV, Bastiaanssen TFS, Boehme M, Codagnone MG, Cussotto S, Fulling C, Golubeva AV, Guzzetta KE, Jaggar M, Long-Smith CM, Lyte JM, Martin JA, Molinero-Perez A, Moloney G, Morelli E, Morillas E, O’Connor R, Cruz-Pereira JS, Peterson VL, Rea K, Ritz NL, Sherwin E, Spichak S, Teichman EM, van de Wouw M, Ventura-Silva AP, Wallace-Fitzsimons SE, Hyland N, Clarke G, Dinan TG. The Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis. Physiol Rev. 2019 Oct 1;99(4):1877-2013. doi: 10.1152/physrev.00018.2018. PMID: 31460832.

105.  Emma Flanagan, Daniel Lamport, Lorraine Brennan, Philip Burnet, Vittorio Calabrese, Stephen C. Cunnane, Martijn C. de Wilde, Louise Dye, Jonathan A. Farrimond, Nancy Emerson Lombardo, Tobias Hartmann, Thomas Hartung, Marko Kalliomäki, Gunther G. Kuhnle, Giorgio La Fata, Aleix Sala-Vila, Cécilia Samieri, A. David Smith, Jeremy P.E. Spencer, Sandrine Thuret, Kieran Tuohy, Silvia Turroni, Wim Vanden Berghe, Martin Verkuijl, Karin Verzijden, Mary Yannakoulia, Lucie Geurts, David Vauzour,Nutrition and the ageing brain: Moving towards clinical applications, Ageing Research Reviews,  62, 101079, ISSN 1568-1637, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arr.2020.101079.

106. D’Amato A, Di Cesare Mannelli L, Lucarini E, Man AL, Le Gall G, Branca JJV, Ghelardini C, Amedei A, Bertelli E, Regoli M, Pacini A, Luciani G, Gallina P, Altera A, Narbad A, Gulisano M, Hoyles L, Vauzour D, Nicoletti C. Faecal microbiota transplant from aged donor mice affects spatial learning and memory via modulating hippocampal synaptic plasticity- and neurotransmission-related proteins in young recipients. Microbiome. 2020 Oct 1;8(1):140. doi: 10.1186/s40168-020-00914-w. PMID: 33004079; PMCID: PMC7532115.

107. Kelly JR, Allen AP, Temko A, Hutch W, Kennedy PJ, Farid N, Murphy E, Boylan G, Bienenstock J, Cryan JF, Clarke G, Dinan TG. Lost in translation? The potential psychobiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus (JB-1) fails to modulate stress or cognitive performance in healthy male subjects. Brain Behav Immun. 2017 Mar;61:50-59. doi: 10.1016/j.bbi.2016.11.018. Epub 2016 Nov 16. PMID: 27865949; see also Allen AP, Hutch W, Borre YE, Kennedy PJ, Temko A, Boylan G, Murphy E, Cryan JF, Dinan TG, Clarke G. Bifidobacterium longum 1714 as a translational psychobiotic: modulation of stress, electrophysiology and neurocognition in healthy volunteers. Transl Psychiatry. 2016 Nov 1;6(11):e939. doi: 10.1038/tp.2016.191. PMID: 27801892; PMCID: PMC5314114. 

DOMAIN 6 – Exercise and Keep Physically Active

111. Erickson KI, Voss MW, Prakash RS, Basak C, Szabo A, Chaddock L, Kim JS, Heo S, Alves
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112. Miranda M, Morici JF, Zanoni MB, Bekinschtein P. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic
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113. Kelley GA, Kelley KS. Exercise and sleep: a systematic review of previous meta-
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114. Petersen AM, Pedersen BK. The anti-inflammatory effect of exercise. Journal of
applied physiology (Bethesda, Md : 1985). 2005;98(4):1154-62. Epub 2005/03/18.
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115. Herold F, Törpel A, Schega L, Müller NG. Functional and/or structural brain changes
in response to resistance exercises and resistance training lead to cognitive
improvements – a systematic review. Eur Rev Aging Phys Act. 2019;16:10. Epub
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116. Burns JM, Johnson DK, Watts A, Swerdlow RH, Brooks WM. Reduced lean mass in
early Alzheimer disease and its association with brain atrophy. Arch Neurol.
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117. Klinedinst BS, Pappas C, Le S, Yu S, Wang Q, Wang L, Allenspach-Jorn K, Mochel JP,
Willette AA. Aging-related changes in fluid intelligence, muscle and adipose mass,
and sex-specific immunologic mediation: A longitudinal UK Biobank study. Brain
Behav Immun. 2019;82:396-405. Epub 2019/09/13. doi: 10.1016/j.bbi.2019.09.008.
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118. Iversen VM, Norum M, Schoenfeld BJ, Fimland MS. No Time to Lift? Designing Time-
Efficient Training Programs for Strength and Hypertrophy: A Narrative Review. Sports
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119. Ludyga S, Gerber M, Pühse U, Looser VN, Kamijo K. Systematic review and meta-analysis investigating moderators of long-term effects of exercise on cognition in healthy individuals. Nat Hum Behav. 2020 Jun;4(6):603-612. doi: 10.1038/s41562-020-0851-8. Epub 2020 Mar 30. PMID: 32231280.

120. Rehfeld K, Müller P, Aye N, Schmicker M, Dordevic M, Kaufmann J, Hökelmann A, Müller NG. Dancing or Fitness Sport? The Effects of Two Training Programs on Hippocampal Plasticity and Balance Abilities in Healthy Seniors. Front Hum Neurosci. 2017 Jun 15;11:305. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2017.00305. PMID: 28674488; PMCID: PMC5475381.

DOMAIN 7 – Keep Yourself Socially and Intellectually Active

Leung, P., Yates, L., Orgeta, V., Hamidi, F., & Orrell, M. (2017). The experiences of people with dementia and their carers participating in individual cognitive stimulation therapy. International journal of geriatric psychiatry32(12), e34–e42. https://doi.org/10.1002/gps.4648

121. Akbaraly, T. N., Portet, F., Fustinoni, S., Dartigues, J. F., Artero, S., Rouaud, O., et al. (2009). Leisure activities and the risk of dementia in the elderly: results from the three-city study. Neurology 73, 854–861. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0b013e3181b7849b

122. Woollett, K., & Maguire, E. A. (2011). Acquiring “the Knowledge” of London’s layout drives structural brain changes. Current biology : CB, 21(24), 2109–2114. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2011.11.018

123. Fratiglioni L, Paillard-Borg S, Winblad B. An active and socially integrated lifestyle in late life might protect against dementia. Lancet Neurol. 2004;3(6):343-53.

124. Chopik, W. J. (2017). Associations among relational values, support, health, and well‐being across the adult lifespan. Personal Relationships, 24(2), 408–422. https://doi.org/10.1111/pere.12187

125. Alaphillipe, D. (2008). Self-esteem in the elderly. Psychol Neuropsychiatr Vieil. 6(3), 167-76. doi: 10.1684/pnv.2008.0135.

126. Fyrand, L. (2010). Reciprocity: A Predictor of Mental Health and Continuity in Elderly People’s Relationships? A Review. Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research. doi:10.1155/2010/340161 

127. Cacioppo, J. T., & Cacioppo, S. (2014). Social relationships and health: The toxic effects of perceived social isolation. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 8(2), 58–72. doi:10.1111/spc3.12087

128. de Moor, E, Denollet, J, & Laceulle, O. (2018). Social inhibition, sense of belonging and vulnerability to internalizing problems. J  Affect Disord, 222. 207-213. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2017.08.034

129. Courtin, E, & Knapp, M. (2017). Social isolation, loneliness and health in old age: a scoping review. Health Soc Care Community, 25(3). 799-812. doi: 10.1111/hsc.12311.

130. Holt-Lunstad, J, Smith, T, Baker, M, Harris, T,  Stephenson, D. (2015). Loneliness and social isolation as risk factors for mortality: a meta-analytic review. Perspect Psychol Sci, 10(2), 227-37. doi: 10.1177/1745691614568352

131. Razai, M. (2020). Mitigating the psychological effects of social isolation during the covid-19 pandemic.  BMJ, 369. doi: 10.1136/bmj.m1904

132. Kim et al., 2017. Bilingualism for Dementia: Neurological Mechanisms Associated With Functional and Structural Changes in the Brain. Frontiers in Neuroscience. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2019.01224

133. Grady, C. L., Luk, G., Craik, F. I., and Bialystok, E. (2015). Brain network activity in monolingual and bilingual older adults. Neuropsychologia 66, 170–181. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2014.10.042

133. Marian, V., and Shook, A. (2012). The cognitive benefits of being bilingual. Cerebrum 2012:13.

134. Perani, D., and Abutalebi, J. (2015). Bilingualism, dementia, cognitive and neural reserve. Curr. Opin. Neurol. 28, 618–625. doi: 10.1097/WCO.0000000000000267

135. Klimova, B., Valis, M., and Kuca, K. (2017). Bilingualism as a strategy to delay the onset of Alzheimer’s disease. Clin. Interv. Aging 12, 1731–1737. doi: 10.2147/CIA.S145397

136. Woumans, E., Santens, P., Sieben, A., Versijpt, J., Stevens, M., and Duyck, W. (2015). Bilingualism delays clinical manifestation of Alzheimer’s disease. Biling. Lang. Cogn. 18, 568–574. doi: 10.1017/s136672891400087x

137. Estanga, A., Ecay-Torres, M., Ibañez, A., Izagirre, A., Villanua, J., Garcia-Sebastian, M., et al. (2017). Beneficial effect of bilingualism on Alzheimer’s disease CSF biomarkers and cognition. Neurobiol. Aging 50, 144–151. doi: 10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2016.10.013

138. Calvo, N., Garcia, A. M., Manoiloff, L., and Ibanez, A. (2015). Bilingualism and cognitive reserve: a critical overview and a plea for methodological innovations. Front. Aging Neurosci. 7:249. doi: 10.3389/fnagi.2015.00249

139. Bubbico, G., Chiacchiaretta, P., Parenti, M., Di Marco, M., Panara, V., Sepede, G., et al. (2019). Effects of second language learning on the plastic aging brain: functional connectivity, cognitive decline, and reorganization. Front. Neurosci. 13:423. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2019.00423

140. Perani et al., 2017. The impact of bilingualism on brain reserve and metabolic connectivity in Alzheimer’s dementia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A., 114 (17), 1690-95. 10.1073/pnas.1610909114 

141. Demarin et al., 2016.  Arts, Brain and Cognition. Psychiatr Danub, 28 (4), 343-348. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27855424/

142. Gallego and Garcia, 2017. Music therapy and Alzheimer’s disease: Cognitive, psychological, and behavioural effects. Neurologia, 32(5):300-308. doi: 10.1016/j.nrl.2015.12.003

143. Lyu et al., 2018. The Effects of Music Therapy on Cognition, Psychiatric Symptoms, and Activities of Daily Living in Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 64(4):1347-1358. doi: 10.3233/JAD-180183.

144. Mahendran, R., Gandhi, M., Moorakonda, R.B. et al. Art therapy is associated with sustained improvement in cognitive function in the elderly with mild neurocognitive disorder: findings from a pilot randomized controlled trial for art therapy and music reminiscence activity versus usual care. Trials 19, 615 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13063-018-2988-6

DOMAIN 8 – Sleep Well, Stay Calm and Live Purposefully

145. Becker, E., Orellana Rios, C., Lahmann, et al Anxiety as a risk factor of Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia. The British Journal of Psychiatr 2018, 213(5), 654-660. doi:10.1192/bjp.2018.173

146. Livingston G, Huntley J, Sommerlad A, Ames D et al  Dementia prevention, intervention, and care: 2020 report of the Lancet Commission. Lancet. 2020 Aug 8;396(10248):413-446. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30367-6. Epub 2020 Jul 30. PMID: 32738937; PMCID: PMC7392084.

147. Kuring, J.K., Mathias, J.L. & Ward, L. Prevalence of Depression, Anxiety and PTSD in People with Dementia: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Neuropsychol Rev 28, 393–416 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11065-018-9396-2

 148. Levy BR, Slade MD, Pietrzak RH, Ferrucci L (2018) Positive age beliefs protect against dementia even among elders with high-risk gene. PLoS ONE 13(2): e0191004. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0191004

149. Marchant NL, Lovland LR, Jones R, et al PREVENT-AD Research Group. Repetitive negative thinking is associated with amyloid, tau, and cognitive decline. Alzheimers Dement. 2020 Jul;16(7):1054-1064. doi: 10.1002/alz.12116. Epub 2020 Jun 7. PMID: 32508019.

150. Xu W, Tan C, Zou J, et al Sleep problems and risk of all-cause cognitive decline or dementia: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry 2020;91:236-244. 

  151. Sabia S, Fayosse A, Dumurgier J, et al. Association of sleep duration in middle and old age with incidence of dementia. Nat Commun. 2021 Apr 20;12(1):2289. doi: 10.1038/s41467-021-22354-2. PMID: 33879784; PMCID: PMC8058039

152. Wang FL, Tang QY, Zhang LL et al. Effects of Mindfulness-based Interventions on Dementia Patients: A Meta-analysis. West J Nurs Res. 2020 Dec;42(12):1163-1173. doi: 10.1177/0193945920916750. Epub 2020 May 14. PMID: 32406791.

 153. Jester DJ, Rozek EK, McKelley RA. Heart rate variability biofeedback: implications for cognitive and psychiatric effects in older adults. Aging Ment Health. 2019 May;23(5):574-580. doi: 10.1080/13607863.2018.1432031. Epub 2018 Jan 30. PMID: 2938137

154. Brenes GA, Sohl S, Wells RE, Befus D, et al. The Effects of Yoga on Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia: A Scoping Review. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2019 Feb;27(2):188-197. doi: 10.1016/j.jagp.2018.10.013. Epub 2018 Oct 25. PMID: 30413292; PMCID: PMC6541218.

155. Kelly ME, Duff H, Kelly S, et al The impact of social activities, social networks, social support and social relationships on the cognitive functioning of healthy older adults: a systematic review. Syst Rev. 2017 Dec 19;6(1):259. doi: 10.1186/s13643-017-0632-2. PMID: 29258596; PMCID: PMC5735742.