Evidence Database - access research on nutrition and brain health

Evidence database

Access our database of research on nutrition and brain health. We aim to select the most pertinent research and summarise it is an easily understandable way.

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Stress & Food Preferences (2020)

This study explored stress & food preferences. 232 Flemish students completed a food frequency questionnaire and psychological tests to measure stress levels, during exam period, to determine effects of stress…

Bilingualism & Cognition (2017)

This study investigate bilingualism & cognition. The study was a meta analysis of studies. Inclusion criteria was studies investigating bilingualism in the elderly with relation to Alzheimer’s disease risk. 6…

Bilingualism & Cognition (2015)

This study investigated bilingualism & cognition. Study included 28 older adult participants - 14 monolingual participants and 14 bilingual participants (who had been bilingual since before age 11). All participants…

Socialisation, Education & Cognition (2008)

In this study memory change over 6 years was assessed using a large scale sample (16, 638 elderly individuals born <1948) from Health and Retirement Study. Growth curve models were…

Fasting & Cognitive Performance (2021)

This study explored fasting & cognitive performance. It identified that biological ageing is a process which is accelerated and exacerbated by excessive calories and a sedentary lifestyle. Further, these factors…

Fish Consumption and Depression (2016)

A sample of 2,034 individuals (age >55) in Singapore were studied to explore the link between fish consumption and depression. The study was conducted as part of the Singapore Longitudinal…

Nutritional Status of Older Adults and Health (2017)

This study looked at the correlation between nutritional status of older adults and health. Correlation was observed between quality of nutritional status and depressive symptoms. Elderly individuals who perceived…

Mediterranean, DASH or MIND Diets (2019)

Results suggest that higher adherence to the Mediterranean, DASH, or MIND diets is associated with less cognitive decline ans well as a lower risk of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). Evidence for…

Alcohol, caffeine and cognitive deficits (2021)

The evidence for the relationship between alcohol, coffee and tea and cognitive deficits/benefitshas been confounding to date. This meta-analysis aimed to assess the current evidenceavailable in terms of the dose–response…

B vitamins and prevention of cognitive decline (2021)

The study investigated B Vitamins and prevention of cognitive decline. Elevation of homocysteine (Hcy) levels is well-established as a risk factor for Alzheimer’s and other types of dementia, yet controversy…

Vitamin D & Schizophrenia (2021)

This study was conducted to investigate vitamin D & schizophrenia. The study especially looked into sunlight exposure and symptoms of schizophrenia. 52 patients took part in the study and had…

Iron deficiency and schizophrenia (2018)

This paper investigated iron deficiency and schizophrenia. Previous research finding that iron deficiency may alter dopaminergic transmission, this study was conducted to identify whether low blood iron levels could be…

Omega 3 and schizophrenia (2016)

This study investigated omega 3 and schizophrenia. Specifically, the study explored the effect of omega-3 supplementation in symptom severity in schizophrenic patients over a long period of time, as previous…

Antipsychotics, Omega 3 and Schizophrenia (2021)

This study explored antipsychotics, omega 3 and schizophrenia. The review compiled previous studies surrounding treatment of schizophrenia using omega-3 and looked at what pathways in the brain are impacted by…

Omega 3 and wellbeing (2007)

This 2007 New Zealand study investigated omega 3 concentrations and wellbeing. 2,416 people participating in the 1997 National Nutrition Survey. Researchers investigated if a relationship existed between the composition of…

Omega 3 and anxiety (2011)

This study investigated omega 3 and anxiety. The study set out to determine if omega-3 fish oil supplementation could improve both anxiety levels and inflammation in a group of 68…

Micronutrients and Childhood Psychosis (2012)

 This study investigated micronutrients in childhood psychosis. Childhood psychosis is difficult to address effectively with conventional pharmaceuticals, many of which have adverse long-term health consequences. In contrast, there are promising…

Healthy food boosts school performance (2007)

Research has demonstrated that healthy food boosts school performance. The Nutrition and Health survey in Taiwan Elementary School Children, 2001-2002, analysed the diets and school performance of 2,222 primary school…

Poor diet & mental health in teens (2011)

Research has investigated poor diet & mental health in teens. Three quarters of lifetime psychiatric disorders emerge in the teenage years or in early adulthood. In an Australian study involving…

Diabetes & Schizophrenia (2008)

Research has investigated the link between diabetes & schizophrenia.  This study looked at 99 patients with schizophrenia.  Their 2 h post prandial plasma glucose was tested prior to medication and…

Fish oil & psychosis (2008)

The study investigated fish oil & psychosis. Individuals at extremely high risk of developing psychosis appear less likely to develop psychotic disorders following a 12-week course of fish oil capsules…

Low Essential Fats & Schizophrenia (2008)

In a study of people with schizophrenia, measures were made of levels of essential fats in red blood cells. Essential fats were found to be lower in this sample, than…

Seafood in pregnancy (2007)

This study investigated seafood in pregnancy. For a number of years pregnant women or those planning pregnancy have been warned by numerous government agencies and medical associations to keep seafood…

Food additives, hyperactivity & children (2007)

Research has investigated food additives, hyperactivity and children. Lead researcher Professor Jim Stevenson says this study on food additives and hyperactive behaviour in children, carried out at Southampton University, shows…

Nutrition in infancy & earning power (2008)

Research has suggested nutrition in infancy may be linked to adult earning power.  The findings, published in The Lancet, were based on a three-decade study of Guatemalan males from birth...

Homocysteine & Schizophrenia (2007)

This study investigated homocysteine and schizophrenia. Elevated plasma levels of the amino acid homocysteine have been associated with schizophrenia, particularly in young male patients. Among other factors, low folic acid…

Sleep Deprivation & Adolescence (2010)

This study investigated sleep deprivation & adolescence. Later parent-set bedtimes and correspondingly shorter sleep duration appears to be related to the development of depression in adolescence, a cross-sectional analysis showed.

Tryptophan & Emotional Processing (2006)

This study assessed  tryptophan & emotional processing. It explored whether tryptophan (TRP) induces cognitive changes opposite to the negative biases found in depression and characteristic of those induced by serotonergic…

School Children & Healthy Diets (2008)

This study investigated school children & healthy diets. A Canadian survey of 5,000 11 year olds and their families found that children who ate more fruits and vegetables and fewer…

Vitamin D & Parkinson’s (2011)

This study investigated Vitamin D & Parkinson's. Early, untreated Parkinson’s disease is linked to a deficiency in vitamin D, more so than in those without the disease.

Vitamin D & Depression (2008)

This research explored vitamin D & depression. Dutch researchers compared vitamin D levels with mood in a study of 1,282 elderly people and found that vitamin D levels were 14%…

Learning, memory & school children (2007)

In two parallel studies (randomised, double-blind), a total of 780 school aged Indonesian and Australian children were given either a combination of vitamins and minerals, a supplement of omega-3 essential…

Diet & behaviour (2007)

This study looked at the impact of diet on behaviour. A review of five well-designed studies found that elimination diets reduced hyperactivity-related symptoms. The picture was of children potentially responding…

Folic acid & Children (2010)

This study explored the impact of folic acid on children. Dutch researchers report that the children of mothers who took folic acid supplements during pregnancy were better at internalising and…

Behaviour, Cognition & Children (2007)

This study explored behaviour, cognition and children. In this preliminary study, researchers investigated the relationship between lead, zinc and iron levels and cognition and behaviour in school children within a…

Omega 3, Depression & Bipolar (2007)

This study investigated omega 3, depression and bipolar. A meta-analysis (review of studies to date) by scientists in Taiwan suggests that omega-3 fatty acids have significant antidepressant effects in patients…

Omega 3 & Bipolar (2006)

This paper investigated omega 3 & bipolar. In a 12-week, double-blind study individuals with bipolar depression received either 1 g of EPA a day, 2 g/day or placebo, alongside their…

Beta Carotene & Memory (2007)

This study investigated beta carotene & memory. In an 18 year study of over four thousand middle-aged to elderly men, those who took 50mg of beta-carotene on alternate days scored…

Breast Milk & Brain Health (2008)

This study investigated breast milk and brain health. In a study of 17,046 babies, followed for 6.5 years, those that were breastfed scored better on all measures of intelligence and…

Omega 3 & Depression (2007)

The study investigated omega 3 & depression. In a small study, specific areas of the brains of deceased patients who had suffered from Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) were compared with…

Fish & Memory (2014)

This study investigated fish & memory. In this study, 260 healthy people were assessed for their level of fish consumption, their cognitive function and also underwent an MRI to assess…

Homocysteine & Brain Atrophy (2002)

The study investigated homocysteine & brain atrophy. Through MRI examination of the brains of 36 healthy elderly individuals, results indicated that there appears to be an association between brain atrophy…

Omega 3 & Cognitive Performance (2007)

This research investigated omega 3 & cognitive performance. Dutch researchers used data from a trial involving 404 men and women (average age 60 at the start). The researchers report that…

Omega-3 & Pregnancy (2008)

This study explored omega 3 & pregnancy. Canadian researchers found that higher levels of the omega-3 DHA in the umbilical cord at birth was associated with better vision at 6…

Cognitive Activity& Lifespan (2012)

This study investigated cognitive activity & lifespan.  In this study, researchers wanted to compare cognitive and physical activity taken over a person’s lifetime with the amount of a protein called…

Omega 3 & Breast Milk (2001)

This study explored omega 3 & breast milk. The Omega-3 fatty acid DHA found in oily fish has a role in visual development in infants. In a study of 39…

Chromium & Depression (2003)

This study investigated chromium & depression. In a placebo-controlled, double-blind pilot study of 15 subjects, chromium picolinate was observed to improved the moods of 70% of those taking chromium compared…

Cognitive Performance & Fish Intake (2007)

This study examined the relationship between cognitive performance & fish intake. The study included 2,031 elderly Norwegians. The researchers report those eating at least 10 grams of fish a day…

Omega 3 & Cognitive Decline (2007)

This study investigated omega 3 & cognitive decline. This was a prospective study of 2,000 people aged 50 to 65 years old. Results indicated that risk of global cognitive decline…

Calcium & Cognitive Decline (2007)

This study investigated calcium & cognitive decline. A total of 4,500 elderly people were involved in a 5-11 year study of the effects of blood calcium levels on cognitive decline.

Folic Acid & Cognition (2007)

This study explored folic acid & cognition. In this study, over 1000 elderly people who were not having problems with their memory or mental function underwent a battery of tests.

Folic Acid & Memory (2007)

This study investigated folic acid & memory. Absent-mindedness in the over-50s is significantly improved when people take folic acid supplements, according to this large study. Short-term memory, mental agility and…

Fish Oil & Cognitive Decline (2007)

This study investigated fish oil & cognitive decline. 210 men aged 70 to 89 years old were followed for 5 years. There was a significant association between intake of fish…

Microbiome, Anxiety & Depression (2011)

This study investigated the microbiome, anxiety & depression. It is understood that there is constant communication between the gut and the brain (the gut-brain axis). In this study, mice were…

Breakfast & Cognition (2006)

This study examined the relationship between consumption of breakfast  & cognition. Subjects included 7,343 10th grade students from Oslo, Norway who completed a questionnaire assessing these variables. The main finding…

Depression & Processed Foods (2009)

This study investigated depression & processed foods. Eating a diet high in processed food increases the risk of depression, according to a recent study.  Data on diet among 3,500 middle-aged…

Fish Oil & Depression (2011)

This study investigated fish oil & depression. Moderate dose of Omega-3 fish oil was observed to improve mood in depressed elderly. In this small randomised controlled trial, a group of…

Iron & Depression (2007)

This study investigated iron & depression. Two hundred women who were not anaemic had their mood and blood iron levels measured. The iron levels in the women who were rated…

Vitamins, Minerals & Mood (2007)

This study investigated vitamins, minerals & mood. 225 hospitalised acutely ill elderly people were either given a normal hospital diet plus multivitamin and mineral supplements (providing 100 per cent of…

Omega 3, Depression & Children (2006)

This study investigated omega 3, depression & children. Antidepressant medication is not recommended for children due to concerns over adverse side effects. In this pilot study of omega-3 fatty acids…

Folate & Depression (2004)

This review explored folate & depression. A review of all randomized controlled trials that compared treatment with folic acid or 5'-methyltetrahydrofolic acid to an alternative treatment, for patients with depression.

Gluten, Dairy & Autism (2006)

This study investigated gluten, dairy & autism. The study reviewed seven trials of gluten/casein (cereal and milk protein) elimination diets in children with autism spectrum disorders. All trials reported some…

Homocysteine & Schizophrenia (2006)

This study investigated homocysteine & schizophrenia. Forty-two schizophrenic patients with elevated plasma homocysteine levels were administered vitamins B6, B12 and folic acid or placebo for 3 months. Homocysteine levels declined…

Homocysteine & Cognition (2007)

This study evaluated the association between plasma homocysteine levels and cognition. The presence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in 1215 elderly subjects (aged 60-85years) from Korea was assessed. Individuals with…

Folate, B12 & Dementia (2007)

This study investigated folate, B12 & dementia. Whilst a high folic acid and B12 intake in the elderly may be protective against age-related memory decline, those with a high folic…

B12 & Cognition (2011)

This study investigated B12 & cognition.  This study compared markers of vitamin B12 deficiency with various measures of brain shrinkage (MRI scans) and function (neuropsychological test results) over a 5…

Vitamin C & Cognition (2009)

This study investigated vitamin C & cognition. A new Danish animal study suggests that vitamin C deficiency in the first weeks and months of life may impair the development of…

Homocysteine & Brain Shrinkage (2011)

This study investigated homocysteine & brain shrinkage. UCLA School of Medicine researchers inlcuding a sample of 732 elderly people subjected to MRI brain scans, found that those with raised homocysteine…

Vitamin D & Cognition (2006)

This study examined vitamin D & cognition. Vitamin D status, cognitive performance, mood, and physical performance in older adults was assessed. 58% of the participants were found to have abnormally…

Homocysteine & Eating Disorders (2007)

The study investigated homocysteine & eating disorders. Plasma homocysteine levels were found to be elevated in women and older female adolescents (but not in young female adolescents) with eating disorders.

Mediterranean Diet & Depression (2009)

This study investigated the mediterranean diet & depression.  In a study of over 10,000 healthy Spanish participants – those who followed a Mediterranean diet most closely had a greater than…

Autism & Digestion (2005)

This study explored autism & digestion. In the study, the role of immune sensitivity to dietary proteins in young children with autism was investigated. Of 109 children with autism, 75…

Immunity & Autism (2004)

This study focused on immunity & autism. The authors considered how immune reactions to food proteins may relate to immune reactions against the body’s own brain cells in autistic patients.

Autism Statistics (2011)

This study explored autism statistics. A new, comprehensive survey of adults in the UK reports that approximately one in a hundred have autism, defined on a tight set of criteria.

Immunity & Autism (2006)

This study investigated immunity & autism. The authors review research linking autism spectrum disorders with various abnormal immune responses during development. Interactions between the immune system and nervous system begin…

Omegas 3, 6 & DCD (2005)

This study investigated omegas 3, 6 & DCD. DCD (Developmental Coordination Disorder) is associated with core deficits in motor function as well as difficulties in learning, behaviour and psychosocial adjustment…

Homocysteine & Dementia (2002)

This study investigated homocysteine & dementia. A total of 1092 subjects without dementia (667 women and 425 men; average age, 76 years) were followed for an average of 8 years.

Vitamin D & Alzheimer’s (2011)

This study investigated vitamin D & Alzheimer's. Scientists at Oxford University's OPTIMA project revealed  findings that support a link between vitamin D and Alzheimer's disease. The study, led by Professor…

Dementia & Alzheimer’s (2007)

This study investigated dementia & Alzheimer's. Over 8000 over-65s were monitored for development of dementia and Alzheimer’s over a 4 year period and details of their dietary habits were analysed.

Folate & Alzheimer’s (2007)

This study investigated folate & Alzheimer's. Folate helps the body to process homocysteine, which is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke, and may also increase the…

Homocysteine & Dementia (2011)

This study investigated homocysteine & dementia. In a meta-analysis of studies (a collation and analysis of a group of studies on the same topic), the results of eight studies (involving…

Homocysteine & The Brain (2011)

This study investigated homocysteine & the brain. A study conducted by UCLA School of Medicine researchers of 732 elderly people given MRI brain scans finds that those with raised homocysteine…

Risk Factors for Alzheimer’s (2011)

This study investigated risk factors for Alzheimer's. This study looked at the evidence regarding seven modifiable risk factors for Alzheimer’s. They calculated that about half of the 33 million cases…

Essential fatty acids & mental health (2005)

The study investigated essential fatty acids & mental health. A review finds that there is an association between depression and low dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids and that low…

Omega 3 & ADHD (2008)

This study investigated omega 3 & ADHD. This Canadian study compared dietary intake and blood levels of essential fats in adolescents with and without ADHD. They found that despite a…

Omega 3 & ADHD (2011)

This study investigated omega 3 & ADHD. For the first 15 weeks, 200 children were given either the combination (PS-Omega3) or a placebo in a double-blind fashion (meaning that no-one…

Nutrients for Autism (2011)

This study investigated nutrients for autism. It involved  giving 141 children and adults with autism, a multi-nutrient formula containing a broad range of vitamins and minerals or a placebo. Their…

Nutrition & ADHD (2012)

This study investigated nutrition & ADHD. A recent review of the current evidence for using diet to help manage ADHD in children concluded that a simple, healthy diet which was…

Fatty Acids & ADHD (2007)

This study investigated fatty acids & ADHD. Two studies were conducted to determine whether physical signs of fatty acid deficiencies such as dry hair and skin, frequent thirst and urination…

Food Intolerance & ADHD (2011)

This study investigated food intolerance & ADHD. Researchers from Holland’s Radboud University set out to answer this question by placing 100 children between the ages of 4 and 8 on…

Fatty Acids & ADHD (2007)

This study investigated fatty acids & ADHD. The study was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised trial involving 132 children with ADHD. Significant medium to strong positive treatment effects were found on…

Low Carbohydrate Diet & Alzheimer’s (2012)

This study investigated low carbohydrate diet & Alzheimer's. In this study 23 Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment were randomly assigned either a low or high carbohydrate diet.  Body composition, metabolic…

Nutrition in Children (2006)

This study explored nutrition in children. This study sought to examine the relationship between food poverty (defined as those individuals who go to school or bed hungry because there is…

Nutrients & Brain Aging (2011)

This study investigated nutrients & brain aging. In this ground-breaking study, 104 healthy elderly people (with an average age of 87) had blood levels of 30 different nutrients measured. Mean…

Omega 3 & Brain Ageing (2007)

This study investigated omega 3 and brain ageing. An Italian study measured the blood levels of essential fats in 935 elderly Italians and compared these with their cognitive function...